By the end of this unit you should:
Read each statement and decide whether the statement expresses a fact or opinion.
Compare your answers with others.
Read each statement and decide whether the statement expresses a fact or fiction.
According to wikipedia a fact is defined as "a thing that is known to be consistent with objective reality and can be proven to be true with evidence". In short, facts are known or believed to be true. Opinions are views, judgements or beliefs. Opinions are may or may not be true. To think logically, it is essential to differentiate opinion from fact.
Work in alone, in pairs or threes. Consider the differences between the following pairs of sentences.
Check which of these words that can be used to explain the differences above.
There are five valid propositional forms. For these forms, when the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true. These forms can be verified using truth tables. The truth value of each element is considered in turn.
Read and remember the following descriptions of the five valid propositional forms.
If one part is true, then the other will also be true. The first part is true. Therefore, the second part is also true.
If A, then B. A. Therefore, B
If one part is true, then the other will also be true. The second part is denied. Therefore, the first part should also be denied.
If A, then B. Not B. Therefore, not A
If one thing happens, another thing will also happen. If the second thing happens, a third thing will also happen. Therefore, if the first thing happens, the third thing will also happen.
If A, then B. If B, then C. Therefore, if A, then C
There are two options. One option is denied. Therefore, as there is only one option remaining, it must be true.
A or B. Not A. Therefore, B
There are two options. If the first option happens, there is a particular outcome. If the second option happens, there is a separate outcome. Therefore, either the first or second outcome will happen.
A or B. If A, then C. If B, then D. Therefore, C or D
Listen to an explanation of each of the arguments above. [ selected student work to be placed here ]
Watch this explanation of sound, valid and invalid arguments (6 min 49 secs).
Knowledge and application activities are designed to help you activate the key terminology and apply the concepts covered in the course so far. Try to use the terminology and concepts accurately and appropriately.
Submit an audio recording (approximately 60 seconds) via ELMS for one of the arguments in Activity 3. Name the argument, provide your own original example and explain the argument. Your argument is decided by the final digit of your student id number. See the list below for your assigned argument.
The recording can be in English or Japanese. Your audio file may be uploaded for other students to listen to. Do not state your name or personal information! Name the file with the name of the argument. Speak clearly.
Critically evaluate each numbered point below. Each sentence is numbered for ease of reference. If it is a valid argument, name the argument. If not, state the reason. Submit your work through ELMS.
Disappearance of an airplane
Make sure you can explain the following 10 logical terms in simple English:
Running count: 46 of 108 logical concepts covered so far.